DB Optimization

The framework:

  • Optimize server setting
  • Archiving/purging (for huge database)
  • Optimize connection (connection pool)
  • Optimize query
  • Optimize application
  • Optimize data structure

Database Problem Patterns:

  • Excessive SQLs: Executing a lot (> 500) different SQL Statements
  • N+1 Query Problem: Executing the same SQL statement multiple times (>20):
  • Slow Single SQL Issue: Executing a single SQL that contributes > 80% of response time
  • Data-Driven Issue: Same request executes different SQL depending on input parameters
  • Database Heavy: Database Contribution Time is > 60% of overall response time
  • Unprepared Statements: Executing the same SQL without preparing the statement
  • Pool Exhaustion: Impacted by High Connection Acquisition Time (getConnection time > executeStatement)
  • Inefficient Pool Access: Excessive access to connection pool (calling getConnection > 50% of executeStatement count)
  • Overloaded Database Server: Database server is simply overloaded with too many requests from different apps

Query Optimizer:

  • Rule-based Optimization: by how to execute a query
  • Cost-based Optimization: by cheapest execution plan

Query Optimization

  • Make sure that the JOIN columns are indexed in both tables
  • In most cases, many small query is faster than complex query
  • In most cases, LEFT JOIN/RIGHT JOIN is slower than INNER JOIN (source)
  • Avoiding joins examples
  • use WHERE statement to make smaller dataset before processing
  • a IN (b,c,d) translate to (a=b OR a=c OR a=d)
  • a NOT IN (b, c, d) translates to (a != b AND a != c AND a != d)
  • EXISTS is much faster than IN, when the sub-query results is very large (source)
  • IN is faster than EXISTS, when the sub-query results is very small
  • GROUP BY on the smallest dataset you can (use where before grouping)
  • Avoid ORDER BY if ordering column not indexed (ordering in application instead)
  • Postgres can use an index when doing some_string LIKE 'pattern%' but not for some_string LIKE '%pattern%'
  • Use BEGIN and ROLLBACK for explain statement




  1. Regulation Compliance
  2. Litigation Preparation
  3. Storage Management
  4. Security